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Nursing and Allied Health: Evidence-Based Nursing: Evidence Appraisal

Online Learning
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edited by Carol Boswell, EdD, RN, CNE, ANEF, FAAN, Professor, Texas Tech University, Odessa, Texas, Sharon Cannon, EdD, RN, ANEF, Regional Dean and Professor, Texas Tech Univesity, Odessa, Texas  (ISBN  9781284079654 1284079651)

  • Connection between research and evidence-based practice / Carol Boswell and Sharon Cannon --
  • Overview of evidence / Pam DiVito-Thomas and Carol Boswell --
  • Overview of research / Sharon Cannon and Margaret Robinson --
  • Overview of quality / Sharon Cannon and Carol Boswell --
  • Quantitative research design / Sharon Cannon --
  • Qualitative and mixed research methods / JoAnn Long, Carol Boswell, and Donna Scott Tilley --
  • Ethics for nursing research and evidence-based practice / Sharon Cannon, Theresa Delahoyde, and Jane Sumner --
  • Asking the right question / Lucy B. Trice and Kathaleen C. Bloom --
  • Literature review : searching and writing the evidence / Carol Boswell and Dorothy Greene Jackson --
  • Population management / Kathaleen C. Bloom and Lucy B. Trice --
  • Data collection / Carol Boswell --
  • Reliability, validity, and trustworthiness / James Eldridge --
  • Data analysis / James Eldridge --
  • The research critique process and the evidence-based appraisal process / Carol Boswell and Sharon Cannon --
  • Translational research, improvement science, and evaluation research with practical applications / Carol Boswell --
  • Application of evidence-based nursing practice with research / Sharon Cannon and Carol Boswell.
Step 3:  Evidence Appraisal

 

Evidence appraisal, involves taking the acquired information, and critiquing it by systematically reviewing its relevance, validity and its application to your specific clinical question.  In other words, the investigator must ask three essential questions:

  • What are the results?
  • Are the results valid?
  • Will the results help to answer my clinical question?

Adapted from Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

 

Evidence Appraisal Tools

 

  • Critical Analysis of Clinical Research Articles: A Guide for Evaluation
 
Citation: Roever L, Resende ES, Diniz ALD, Penha-Silva N, Biondi-Zoccai G, et al. (2015) Critical Analysis of Clinical Research Articles: A Guide for Evaluation. Evidence Based Medicine and Practice 2: e116. Doi: 10.4172/2471-9919.1000e116
Editorial    Evidence Based Medicine and Practice, Vol 2(1)   DOI: 10.4172/2471-9919.1000e116
Corresponding Author: Leonardo Roever, Department of Clinical Research, Av Pará, 1720-Bairro Umuarama, Uberlândia-MG-CEP 38400-902, Brazil, Tel: +553488039878, Email: leonardoroever@hotmail.com

Received Date: Dec 21, 2015 / Accepted Date: Dec 28, 2015 / Published Date: Jan 04, 2016

 

 

Copyright: © 2016 Roever L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Table 1: Critical appraisal of bias in systematic reviews. [7-27].

Use of this guide may assist in the evaluation of the studies and their incorporation into clinical practice.

Title Is the title clear, accurate and concise, avoiding unnecessary words and without abbreviations?
Abstract Does the abstract contain what was done, how it was done, the results and their implications?
Definition of The Study Theme Has the problem been properly defined?
Is problem linked to the article already published on the subject?
Is the research goal described and correctly defined?
Research Design Is the study controlled? What is the hypothesis? Is the hypothesis clearly defined?
What is the kind of study?
Is the type of study appropriate to achieve the objective of the investigation? Are there inherent
limitations in the employed method that may have affected the results?
Is the method correctly applied?
Were the ethical aspects properly conducted?
Sample Is the target group appropriate to achieve the objective?
How was done the sample selection?
Was the sample selected at random? Was it somehow flawed?
In the case of experimental study or clinical trial, was there randomization?
Was the sample size discussed?
Was the sample size enough for the purposes of this study?
Gauging of Information Are the used indicators and procedures the most appropriates?
Have the variables been properly set?
Is the effect evaluation objective and proper in relation to the study goals? Is the response variable
properly used to measure the effect?
Are there preparation (pre-test) and data collection instruments (questionnaires, appliances)?
Was there training of collectors and examiners?
What is the reliability of the information?
May the observation process have affected the outcome?
In the case of experimental study, was there adherence to treatment and did the study use double-blind
technique?
Statistical Analysis Do the authors correctly showed the sample calculation?
Were the employed statistical techniques adequate to the problem?
Were they used in the right way?
Were the confidence intervals calculated and the accuracy of the results informed?
Internal Consistency of Results Were figures and tables added up correctly?
Are the totals in a table the same as the totals in another table? If they are different, are there
explanations for the differences?
Interpretation of Results

Is there coherence between the methods of the original protocol and end methods actually used?
May the differences be simply due to "chance" - type I error - or false positive results? What was the alpha used?
If there were no statistically significant differences, can a Type II error (false negative) be present?
What was the employed beta? What was the study power (1-beta)?
Where there multiple comparisons (i.e., multiple hypotheses) to test various effects? If so, has the alpha for each hypothesis been a priori fixed?
Can the differences be attributed to a selection bias (i.e., the one that occurs in the sample composition or the constitution of study groups)?
Was there loss of results in the follow-up? What was the non-response rate?
In the case of experimental study, Hawthorne or placebo effects could explain the results? Was there co-intervention or contamination?
Can the differences be attributed to measurement bias (i.e., the one which focuses on how to obtain the data)?
Can the differences be attributed to confounding bias (i.e., the ones that can be explained by other factors such as age, gender or other confounding variable), due to differences in the composition of the groups? In other words, were the techniques to control the confounding variables properly used?
Are the results discussed and compared with those of previous studies?
Can the results be generalized to different populations in relation to the population here studied?
For what kind of populations would you apply the results?
Does the study change your practice?

Conclusions Are the conclusions justified when compared to the presented results?
Are there conclusions not based on study data?
Have the authors commented about the study limitations?
Have the authors identified possible defects, estimated their magnitude and pointed out their likely implications?
Are the findings relevant to the problem and to the study objectives?
Style Is the style clear and direct, without unnecessary repetition?
Are the use of technical terms and the language in general correct?
Bibliographic References  
Conflicts of Interest

 

 

Roever L, Resende ES, Diniz ALD, Penha-Silva N, Biondi-Zoccai G, et al. (2015) Critical Analysis of Clinical Research Articles: A Guide for Evaluation. Evidence Based Medicine and Practice 2: e116. Doi: 10.4172/2471-9919.1000e116

Copyright: © 2016 Roever L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

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