It is important to capitalize Boolean operators or connectors in PubMed. Make it a practice in other databases lest you forget.
PubMed applies an AND operator between concepts, e.g., "vitamin c common cold" is translated as vitamin c AND common cold. Enter Boolean operators in uppercase characters to combine or exclude search terms:
PubMed processes searches in a left-to-right sequence. Use parentheses to "nest" concepts that should be processed as a unit and then incorporated into the overall search.
Boolean operators must be used when combining tagged search terms as follows: search term [tag] BOOLEAN OPERATOR search term [tag]. See Search Field descriptions and tags.
The results page indicates the total number of items retrieved.
You can change the number of items displayed per page using the Display options button: The default display is 10 items.
Click "Show more" to display the next page of results, or click "Jump to page" to navigate directly to a specific page of results.
Click the Display options button in the upper right corner of the search results page to change the sort order:
Results are displayed in the summary format by default, except a single citation result will go directly to the abstract page. You can change the results format using the Display options button:
Selecting one or more items and changing the display format will display only the selected result(s) in the new format.
By default, the summary format includes snippets from the citation abstract. You can turn off snippets under Display options by deselecting Show snippets.
Click the title of the citation to go to its abstract page, or change the search results display to Abstract format using the Display options button in the upper right corner of the search results page.
PubMed may include non-English abstracts if supplied by the publisher. The abstract text defaults to English when a citation has an accompanying non-English abstract. Links to display the additional language(s) are available on the Abstract display. To retrieve citations with non-English abstracts, use the query hasnonenglishabstract.
Citations are initially displayed 10 items per page and sorted by Best Match.
By default, PubMed search results are displayed in a summary format and include snippets from the citation abstract. Snippets and highlighted terms are selected based on relatedness to your query.
To see the abstract for an individual citation, click the title of the citation to go to its abstract page.
Journal names are shown using the journal title abbreviation. When viewing citations in Abstract format, mouse over a journal’s title abbreviation to display the full journal name.
Most databases contain links to articles in both PDF, HTML format. Links are not always dynamic. Sometimes, you will see a link that reads Link to full text finder. When the link does pull up your article in full text, you may need to use the Journals Full Text Finder.
Journals Full Text Finder is on the NSULA Libraries home page in a purple box.
PubMed records contain citation information (e.g., title, authors, journal, publication date) and abstracts of published articles and books. PubMed search results do not include the full text of the journal article, but the abstract view in PubMed includes links to the full text from other sources when available, such as the publisher’s website or the PubMed Central (PMC) database. The full-text journal site may require a fee or subscription, however online journals sometimes provide free access. Access may also be available through your organization, or local medical library.
You may be able to obtain free copies of full-text articles in these ways:
On the filter sidebar, click "Free full text" to narrow results to resources that are available for free on the web, including PubMed Central, Bookshelf, and publishers' websites. Alternately, include free full text[Filter] in your query.
When full text is available in PubMed Central (PMC), the "Free in PMC" icon will appear on the citation's abstract display under Full-Text Links. Click the icon to view the article in PMC.
PubMed Central (PMC) is the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature.
Journal publishers or related organizations may provide access to articles for free, for free after registering as an individual or guest, or for a fee. When provided by the publisher or other organization, icons linking to these sources can be found on the citation's abstract display under the "Full-Text Links" and/or "LinkOut" sections. Icons will often indicate free full text when the article is available for free.
Note: When you click a full text icon or link in PubMed, you leave PubMed and are directed to the full text at an external provider's site. NCBI does not hold the copyright to this material, and cannot give permission for its use. Users should review all copyright restrictions set forth by the full text provider before reproducing, redistributing, or making commercial use of material accessed through LinkOut.
Please see the Copyright and Disclaimers page for additional information.
Your medical or nursing library is your best option. If you see icons for your library on the abstract view this indicates that your library provides a link to the article, has the journal in its collection, or may otherwise obtain the article for you through interlibrary loan. If your library does not have access to the article you need, ask a librarian about ordering the article from another institution.
Some nursing and medical libraries have copies of medical journals or can get a copy of an article for you. Ask your local librarian about inter-library loan options and fees.
You can cut and paste into the interlibrary loan form from the bibliographic record: https://library.nsula.edu/interlibraryloan/