Filters narrow your search results by article type, text availability, publication date, species, language, sex, subject, journal category, and age.
To display additional filters on the sidebar:
Select article types to narrow your results based on the type of material the article represents, such as: Clinical Trial or Review.
You can add more article types to the sidebar using the Additional Filters button. The complete list of MEDLINE publication types is available. Systematic review articles are retrieved using a search strategy.
These filters may exclude some citations that have not yet completed the MEDLINE indexing process.
Filter your results only to citations that include a link to full text, a link to free full text, or an abstract, click the appropriate selections.
Alternatively, you may search for citations with links to full text, free full text or include an abstract using the values: full text[sb], free full text[sb], or 'hasabstract'. No search field tag is required for has abstract. You may also search for all MEDLINE citations with a structured abstract with ‘has structure dabstract’.
Note: Most citations in PubMed to articles published before 1975 do not include abstracts.
To filter your results by Publication Date, click 1 year, 5 years, or 10 years. These filters include both electronic and print publication dates.
Species selections restrict your results to human or animal studies.
Note: If you are searching for an intersex species or transsex patient type, do not search male or female. Use the subject term such as hermaphrodite, intersex* or transsex*.. Note: If you are searching for articles about breast cancer in males, use the birth sex. A transsexual male may present as female, yet have the hormonal makeup of a male. Conversely, a transsexual of either type may use hormone therapy and terms for hormone therapy should be added to the search.
Special subject filters restrict retrieval to specific subjects where there is a large body of knowledge, such as:
Use the Additional Filters button. to add one of these subjects to the sidebar, Then select the special subject.
Other subjects use a specialized search strategy. Additional subject filters and subject filter search strategies are available at PubMed Subject Filters.
Subjects can also be searched using aids[sb] or cancer[sb]. The Systematic Reviews filter is also included with the Article Type filters.
Select journal categories can be added to the sidebar using the Additional Filters button. Restricting journal articles to a Nursing Journal subset will remove relevant articles.
The Journal/Citation subsets restrict retrieval to specialized journals or articles on specialized topics in other journals. The table below lists the journal subsets, along with the code used for searching. Some subsets are closed and are no longer being assigned to current data.
To search for a Journal/Citation subset, enter in the search box: jsubset?, where ? represents the subset code. The Journal/Citation subset does not require a search tag.
|Subset Code||Journal/Citation Subset|
|AIM||Abridged Index Medicus is a list created in 1970 of approximately 120 core clinical English language journals that corresponds to "Core clinical journals" journal category selection in filters.|
|E||Citations from bioethics journals or selected bioethics citations from other journals|
|H||Health administration journals, non-Index Medicus|
|IM||Index Medicus journals|
|K||Consumer health journals|
|Q||History of medicine journals and selected citations from other journals|
|QIS||Citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of history of medicine|
|S||Citations from space life sciences journals and selected space life sciences citations from other journals|
|T||Health technology assessment journals, non-Index Medicus|
|X||AIDS/HIV journals (selected citations from other journals 1980-2000)|
To restrict retrieval to citations that have a free full-text article available in PubMed Central (PMC), search pubmed pmc[sb].
Use the PMID/PMCID/NIHMSID Converter to convert IDs for publications referenced in PubMed and PMC. To retrieve citations that include an NIHMS ID use the query, hasnihmsid.
The citation status indicates the internal processing stage of an article in the PubMed database (see PubMed Citation Status Subsets).
To search for a particular citation status, enter one of the search terms below followed by the [sb] search tag:
To search for the total number of PubMed citations, enter all[sb] in the search box.
Publishers may submit citations for articles that appear on the web prior to their publication in final or print format. To search for these ahead-of-print citations, enter pubstatusaheadofprint. Ahead of print articles will not be available through Interlibrary Loan until the journal prints.
These filters may exclude some citations because they have not yet completed the MEDLINE indexing process.
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